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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 437 
Surrounded by bags of goods, a Jewish woman in the Chelmno death camp sorts clothing from the transports, which will be shipped to warehouses near Lódz, Poland. Beginning in March 1943, transports to Chelmno ceased when the camp reached its goal of killing most of the Jews in Warthegau, the former Polish territory annexed to the Reich. The killings resumed about a year later when the decision was made to gas prisoners of the Lódz Ghetto.
Photo: Yad Vashem
Five German soldiers surround the corpses of two Russian civilians whom they have just executed. Although theoretically protected under the rules of war, civilians on the Eastern Front became frequent targets of the Germans. The Nazis exacted ruthless punishment on anyone suspected of being a partisan or aiding partisan activity.
Photo: State Archives of the Russian Federation / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Wilhelm Boger (far right) was generally considered the cruelest of the guards at Auschwitz. Witnesses at his trial claimed that his hands often became coated with the blood of the victims of his sadistic methods of torture. On the left is a model of the "Boger swing," an apparatus for torture that Boger called his "talking machine."
Photo: AP/Wide World
 March 15, 1943: Trude Neumann, a former mental patient in a hospital near Vienna and daughter of Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, dies of starvation at the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia.
 March 16, 1943: A much-feared SS trooper is murdered in Lvov, Ukraine, by a Jewish man named Kotnowski; See March 17, 1943.
 March 17, 1943: More than 1200 Jews from Lvov, Ukraine, are killed at Piaski, Poland, as retribution for the March 16 murder of an SS trooper by a Jewish man. Eleven Jewish policemen are hanged in the ghetto, 1000 Jewish slave laborers are executed, and an additional 200 Jews are murdered.
 March 18, 1943: The hiding place of Dr. Julian Charin, age 30, of Lapy, Ukraine, is betrayed to the Nazis, and Charin is shot.
 March 18, 1943: At Auschwitz, 26-year-old underground fighter Lonka Kozibrodska dies of typhus.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 437 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.