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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 447 
Members of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and other SS soldiers query a Hasidic Jew during the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto in April 1943. The interrogator may well have desired information about Jews in hiding. Ghetto Judenrat members and some other Warsaw Jews had hoped during 1941 and 1942 that, by developing the ghetto as a dependable source of labor, the majority of inhabitants might be saved. By the time of the uprising, however, Jewish assumptions of Nazi rationality had evaporated. If the soldiers seen here were determined to pry information from the assembled captives, they were likely disappointed.
Photo: Ullstein Bilderdienst 2 15 330 91 50 - 4
A manhole cover from the Warsaw Ghetto offers tragic testimony to the fate of thousands of Jews. Jews engaged in resistance used sewers to escape and as avenues of transportation during the revolt. Sewers were also important links between Jewish Resistance fighters and the Polish underground, which operated on the Aryan side of Warsaw.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Ukrainian SS soldiers examine the bodies of Jews at the entrance to a destroyed apartment house in the Warsaw Ghetto. Auxiliary units from the Ukraine provided crucial manpower that was necessary to implement the Nazis' genocidal campaigns. The Ukrainian units were renowned for their brutal efficiency.
Photo: National Archives / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 April 28, 1943: An official SS telegram instructs the administration at Auschwitz to prepare 120 women for medical experiments.
 April 29, 1943: Near Kraków, Poland, Jewish women attack their male SS guards while being transferred from one prison to another. Two women escape but most of the others are killed. In Kraków proper, Jewish Resistance fighters incarcerated since December 1942 are trucked to the Plaszów, Poland, concentration camp. Most are killed after breaking out of the truck.
 April 30, 1943: Two thousand Jews deported from Wlodawa, Poland, to Sobibór attack the death camp's SS guards on arrival at the unloading ramp. All of the Jews are killed by SS machine guns and grenades.
 May 1943: SS-Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop completes his official written chronicle of the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto: The Stroop Report.
 May 1943: Four trains carrying nearly 11,000 Jews arrive at Auschwitz from Salonika, Greece.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 447 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.