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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 500 
Emaciated Gypsy boys selected for cruel surgery to remove their penises and testicles are catalogued by the Auschwitz camera. Hitler was keenly interested in sterilization of "undesirables" as a way to control unwanted population growth. A side benefit from Hitler's perspective was that sterilized subjects could be useful as laborers for the Reich. Nazi camp physicians undertook the surgeries and other procedures with vigor. Besides being profoundly unethical, medical experimentation of this sort was often clumsy and not even remotely grounded in legitimate science. Instead, Auschwitz's Dr. Josef Mengele and other camp surgeons were motivated by an amoral "what if?" mentality; that is, by a deadly curiosity about what would happen to a human being if a particular procedure were performed. To such doctors, human suffering was irrelevant.
Photo: State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The main section of the synagogue in Kraków, Poland, was destroyed in the winter of 1943-44. Plaszów camp commander Amon Goeth callously ordered its destruction to make room for a new railroad line. Train connections were crucial for the Nazi war effort, and thousands of kilometers of track were laid to facilitate the movement of raw materials and war-related materiel.
Photo: Yad Vashem / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 November 22, 1943: More than 1000 Jewish patients at a Berlin mental hospital are deported to Auschwitz.
 November 23, 1943: 150 Jewish partisans escape Occupied Kovno, Lithuania, and head eastward into the Rudninkai Forest.
 November 28-December 1, 1943: Allied leaders Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran. They discuss a British/American invasion against the Germans from the west.
 November 30, 1943: Italy's Interior Ministry orders the concentration of all Italian Jews in camps.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 500 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.