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1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 537 
Marc Bloch, an eminent French-Jewish historian, authored Strange Defeat, an analysis of the causes of the fall of France in 1940. He also served as a partisan leader at Lyon, where he was arrested, tortured, and shot on June 16, 1944, ten days after the Allied invasion of Normandy.
Photo: Yad Vashem
Attesting to the meticulous record keeping of the Nazi doctors, this document from late June 1944 accompanied the head of a corpse of a 12-year-old Gypsy child. Signed by Josef Mengele and sent from the infirmary of the Gypsy camp at Auschwitz, it directed that the head be given further examination.
Photo: Lydia Chagoll/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
In June 1944 Jews remaining in Budapest, Hungary, were forced to move to houses marked with a Jewish star. Starting on November 8, 1944, about 70,000 Hungarian Jews were forced by the SS and the Hungarian Fascist Arrow Cross to march from Budapest to the Austrian border. Thousands of Budapest Jews died on the death marches.
Photo: Yad Vashem
 July 1944: Jewish-Soviet partisans from Poland and Lithuania are active behind the lines at Lublin, Poland, and Kovno, Vilna, and Siauliai, Lithuania, as Soviet troops approach from the east.
 July 1944: The Red Army liberates Lvov, Ukraine.
 July 1944: The SS completes the evacuation of the death camp at Majdanek.
 July 1944: The SS evacuates the concentration camp at Kovno, Lithuania.
 July 1944: Jewish-American Lieutenant Colonel Murray C. Bernays is assigned by the U.S. Army Civil Affairs Division to collect evidence of war crimes committed against American servicemen. Bernays begins to formulate his concept of Nazism as a criminal conspiracy, which will be central to the Nuremberg Tribunal of 1945-46.
 July 1944: Neutral Switzerland ends long-standing, restrictive Jewish-immigration standards and admits all Jewish refugees who wish and are able to enter.
1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 537 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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