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1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 538 
Pictured here are leaders of the Vilna FPO (Fareynikte Partisaner Organzatsye; United Partisan Organization). The FPO tried but failed to prepare the Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto for liberation, and the group's members were forced to fall back to nearby forests and mount resistance from there.
Photo: Wiener Library/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The first Polish children arrived at Auschwitz in June 1940, but it was in the latter half of 1944 that the greatest number came. Here, a group of Polish children looks out from behind a barbed-wire fence at Auschwitz. Polish and Russian children judged to possess "Aryan" physical qualities--blond hair and blue eyes--were forcibly taken from their parents and sent to offices of the Resettlement Bureau for placement. Thousands of Polish boys and girls were imprisoned in Auschwitz before being transferred to Germany during the Heuaktion (Hay Action).
Photo: Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Alfred Rosenberg, a chief Nazi theorist, was Reich minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, and a vocal proponent of the superiority of Aryan and German blood. After writing many racist tracts--often purchased by Germans but seldom read--Rosenberg headed the Nazi Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question, and planned to chair an international anti-Jewish congress in July 1944.
Photo: Suddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst
 July 2-3, 1944: Three thousand Jews from Vilna--factory laborers and the town's last remaining Jews--are executed by the SS at nearby Ponary.
 July 3, 1944: The Red Army captures Minsk, Belorussia.
 July 3, 1944: The British War Cabinet agrees to examine Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann's request for the formation of a Jewish Brigade to fight in the British Army, with the white and blue Star of David as its standard.
 July 4, 1944: Red Army units reach the Maly Trostinets, Belorussia, concentration camp. About 20 Jews who escaped to the woods six days earlier are seized by Red Army soldiers; See 1946.
1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 538 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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