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1933: The Nazi State Begins
 pg. 62 

The Dachau camp, near Munich, Germany, was the first official concentration camp established by the Nazi Party. Staffed initially by local SA and SS men, Dachau was the scene of excessively cruel punishments.

Reorganized and brought under SS control in early 1934, Dachau became the model for the more orderly, horrifyingly efficient concentration camp system. Heinrich Himmler's appointee, Theodor Eicke, reorganized the camp's administration and refined procedures guiding the brutalization of inmates. He demanded utmost discipline and instilled fanatical hatred of prisoners, whom he regarded as subhuman enemies of the state. The most severe and most psychologically devastating punishments were reserved for Jewish inmates. Among Eicke's favorite punishments were long periods of solitary confinement with only bread and water; lashings; and the tying of prisoners to stakes.

The camp was also the scene of hundreds of illegal and inhumane medical experiments. Prisoners were subjected to diseases. Others were immersed in cold water for long periods to test the effect on the human body. The camp still stands today as a grim memorial.

Hitler's personal magnetism and charismatic speaking abilities were key to the Nazi Party's political fortunes. A tireless campaigner and self-proclaimed man of the people, Hitler was relentless on the stump. He is pictured here speaking to loyal followers in the basement canteen of the Munich Brown House. Membership in the Nazi paramilitary organization offered a surrogate family structure. Food, clothing, shelter, and camaraderie were tremendous attractions for many wayward and alienated young men.
Photo: William O. McWorkman/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
National Socialist youth offer the Sieg Heil salute while viewing a parade in Berlin. No child was considered too young to identify with the Party, and great effort was put forth to recruit. Clubs and activities geared for the young attracted thousands of German children into the Nazi fold. The leadership of the Nazi Party recognized that children were central to their plans for a thousand-year Reich.
Photo: Archive Photos
 April 4, 1933: A front-page article in the German-Jewish newspaper Jüdische Rundschau exhorts Jews to wear the identifying Yellow Star with the headline, Tragt ihn mit Stolz, den Gelben Fleck! (Wear it with Pride, the Yellow Badge!).
 April 4, 1933: A series of articles by German Jew Robert Weltsch follows the theme, "Say 'yes' to our Jewishness."
 April 7, 1933: Hitler approves decrees banning Jews and other non-Aryans from the practice of law and from jobs in the civil service (Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service). Jewish government workers in Germany are ordered to retire.
1933: The Nazi State Begins
 pg. 62 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.