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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 473 
Peering into the distance, a man--probably a Jewish partisan--stands guard in Poland. In August 1943 the Nazis moved to liquidate the Bialystok (Poland) Ghetto, deporting the remaining 30,000 Jews. Recognizing that the end was near, some Jews--led by Mordechai Tenenbaum and Daniel Moszkowicz--staged a valiant, fierce struggle of defiance. Others sought to prolong resistance by fleeing to the forests, where they joined the Forois and other partisan groups.
Photo: Yad Vashem
This was one of the hundreds of mass graves dug near the Chelmno death camp. From 1941 to 1944, Chelmno gassed 150,000 to 320,000 people (estimates vary greatly), most of whom were Polish Jews. The Nazis stopped deportations to Chelmno in 1943 because the camp's gas-van extermination process was, in their minds, too slow. However, they reopened the camp in april 1944 to receive and kill the Jews of Lódz, Poland.
Photo: YIVO / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Originally established by the Dutch in 1939 as a detention center for illegal Jewish immigrants, Westerbork under the Nazis became the transit hub in the deportation of Dutch Jews. While the majority spent only a few days at the camp, a minority became permanent residents, receiving work cards like the one pictured here. Most of the employed prisoners worked in the camp hospital and dispensary.
Photo: Ruth Wiener Klemens / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 August 17, 1943: Some 1200 children are taken from the Jewish ghetto at Bialystok, Poland, to the Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, camp/ghetto and later to Auschwitz, where they will be killed.
 August 17, 1943: The Allies defeat Axis forces in Sicily.
 August 19, 1943: The Treblinka death camp receives its final trainload of Jewish deportees. They come from Bialystok, Poland.
 August 20, 1943: Three thousand Jews are executed during a revolt at Glebokie, Belorussia.
 August 23, 1943: The Red Army captures Kharkov, Ukraine.
 August 24, 1943: Five thousand Jews from Bialystok, Poland, are killed at Auschwitz, Treblinka, and Majdanek.
 August 25, 1943: SS troops at the Janówska, Ukraine, labor camp select 24 attractive Jewish women aged 17 to 20 and take them to a night-long SS bacchanalia; See August 26, 1943.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 473 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.