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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 341 
Though not as strong as in other countries, antisemitism did occur in Italy. Here, an Italian soldier whips a Greek Jew in the city of Salonika. The Jews were assembled in Liberty Square. Forced to do calisthenics in the hot sun, the Jews were beaten if they slowed down.
Photo: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Complex challenges faced the Judenrat (Jewish Council) of a huge ghetto like Lódz. To support the needs of the ghetto, the Judenrat set up hospitals, schools, and soup kitchens. All required funding, which the council raised by taxing everything they could, beginning with wages. Here, Nazi Walter Genewein, financial director of the Lódz Ghetto administration, counts money into piles delegated to the ghetto's various needs and to special German demands.
Photo: Juedisches Museum / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The German offensive against the Soviet Union relied heavily upon surprise and speed. The first phases of the attack led to one Nazi victory after another, as Hitler threw masses of men and machines into the Eastern Front. The successes of the summer of 1941 were followed by even more spectacular victories the next summer, including the capture of the Crimea and its naval base at Sevastopol.
Photo: National Archives / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 July 28, 1942: In the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, two male Jews, one just 16 years old, are hanged after escaping a work gang.
 July 28, 1942: Young members of the Warsaw Ghetto establish Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB; Jewish Fighting Organization). At this time, the only weapon in the ghetto is a single pistol.
 July 28-31, 1942: About 30,000 Jews are killed in Minsk, Belorussia.
 July 29, 1942: The Nazis post notices in the Warsaw Ghetto offering extra food (mainly bread and jam) to Jews who go voluntarily to "resettlement."
 July 30, 1942: German industrialist Eduard Schulte, whose company has mines near Auschwitz, reveals to a Swiss colleague that Hitler and the German Reich have decided to round up the millions of Jews of Occupied Europe, concentrate them in the East, and murder them using prussic acid starting in the fall of 1942. The information is soon communicated to Swiss World Jewish Congress representative Gerhart Riegner.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 341 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.